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Reduce the impact of drinking sugary drinks on childhood obesity

Publié le 14/07/2020, par rayrayray,

下面51due教员组为大家整理一篇优秀的代写范文- Reduce the impact of drinking sugary drinks on childhood obesity,供大家参考学习。这篇文章讲述的是世界卫生组织(世卫组织)于2016年10月11日在日内瓦总部发表了题为“非传染性疾病饮食和预防的财政政策”的报告。该报告指出,如果相关组织不采取有效干预措施,将会有2.68亿青少年的体重超过5至17岁。其中许多人将面临罹患II型糖尿病,高血压,脂肪肝,哮喘,睡眠障碍和其他严重疾病的风险。糖的摄入过多,尤其是含糖饮料,是导致世界各地许多国家儿童肥胖的主要原因。

Reduce the impact of drinking sugary drinks on childhood obesity

The World Health Organization (WHO) published a report entitled "Fiscal Policies for the Diet and Prevention of NCDs" at the Geneva headquarters on the October 11, 2016. The report pointed out that if related organizations do not take effective interventions, there will be 268 million adolescents whose age between 5 to 17 weight exceeded. And many of them will face the risk of suffering from type II diabetes, high blood pressure, fatty liver, asthma, sleep disorders and other serious illness. Excessive intake of sugar, especially drink sugary beverages, is a major cause of increased childhood childhood obesity in many countries around the world.

 “Increased consumption of beverages, particularly those high in sugar, is thought to be one of the potential contributors to the rapid increase in energy intake among children and adolescents.” (Allman-Farinell et al. 2015) Researchers found that 50 grams of sugar per day is the upper limit of an ordinary people, but one can cola contains about 37 grams sugar. Assume that the average volume of a can of drinks is 330 ml, children aged 4 to 10 average annual intake of 110 cans of sugar drinks, adolescents drink an average of 234 cans of sugar drinks per year. Excessive drinking of sugar-containing beverages leads to children’s sugar intake over the recommended standard, especially the daily intake of sugar from adolescents aged 11 to 18 is three times as much as the recommended standard. Sugar intake is one of the main factors that induce children obesity, each gram of sugar will bring 4 kcal of calories. Research shows that if you drink a can of sugary beverages everyday, the annual weight will increase by about 7 kg. Apart from that, “A high glycaemic load diet exacerbates glucose and insulin responses, which have been associated with increased appetite, food intake and body weight gain.”(Allman-Farinell et al. 2015) Evidence shows that large amounts of sugary beverages, like carbonated soft drinks and fruit-flavoured drinks, may increase obesity risk by contributing to a high glycaemic load and exacerbating insulin response. The energy consumed in the form of liquid has a low satiety value and may not trigger a physiological saturating mechanism to the same extent as the energy consumed in solid form, resulting in a lack of compensatory reduction in energy from other food sources and consequently intake higher energy. Because of sugary beverages contribute low satiety value and tastes dilicious, it is different for children to control the number. Children and there parents are rarely aware of that contains so much sugar, so they usually drink sugary beverages without any restrictions.

Scientific research has confirmed that free sugar that produces, chefs or consumers add in foods and beverages, such as glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc. Especially there is a significant correlation between free sugar in the from of sugar-containing beverages and overweight prevalence rates. Children who drink one or more sugary beverages a day are 55% more likely to be overweight or obese after one year compared to children who do not drink or rarely drink sugary beverages. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that 40% of children who born between 2000 and 2011 will suffer from Type 2 diabetes. The main cause of Type 2 diabetes is drinking too much sugary beverages. In the United States, nearly 30 million children and adults suffer from diabetes. In addition, 35% of Americans are facing obesity problems and obesity can cause diseases such as hypertension. .

Primary Stakeholders

There is no doubt that the biggest stakeholder in this study is children. With the improvement of living standards, the number of children drinking sugary beverages has greatly increased, this is very bad for the child's physical health. The children who drink a lot of sugary beverages will drink less milk products, and the the intake of calcium is lower. Another reserch showed that “the availability and consumption of sugary beverages in secondary schools is associated with higher rates of obesity in adolescents.”(Kmietowicz and Zosia;2014) The environment of children's life lures them to drink more and more drinks because they have a lot of drinks around them. Not just around the school, if guests come to home, parents often treat them with a cup of sweet drink, family and children will drink together. If eating in the restaurant, the waiter will always be enthusiastic to ask ladies and children “to drink what?” parents will naturally ask the child which kind of drink they like. Apart from that, sugary beverages ads are still on a global scale overwhelming. Even if children know that something is bad for them in the long run, the ability to control and control impulsive behavior is not fully developed before adulthood; children are more susceptible to emotional information in advertising, this makes them more like drinking sugary beverages.

This article mainly analyzes the impact of sugary drinks on obesity in children, and hopes to draw the attention of relevant people in order to reduce the negative impact of sugary drinks on children's health.

Research Agenda

To further my research I need to be intensively study the relationship between children drinking sugary drinks and childhood obesity, and collect more about the relevant information. Apart from that, I would also like to understand the children's eating habits and daily intake of sugar. I also need to count the types of sugary beverages that are most popular with children and the sugar content of these beverages to further calculate the sugar content of children from sugary beverages. In addition, I need to understand the views of children and their parents on sugary beverages and whether they recognize the negative impact of sugary drinks on children's health, and whether parents will limit children to drinking sugary drinks. Besides, I also want to know whether parents have any suggestions in the view of the current situation.

51due留学教育原创版权郑重声明:原创优秀代写范文源自编辑创作,未经官方许可,网站谢绝转载。对于侵权行为,未经同意的情况下,51Due有权追究法律责任。主要业务有essay代写、assignment代写、paper代写、作业代写服务。   51due为留学生提供最好的作业代写服务,亲们可以进入主页了解和获取更多代写范文提供作业代写服务,详情可以咨询我们的客服QQ:800020041。 


Pygmalion Management

Publié le 14/07/2020, par rayrayray,

下面51due教员组为大家整理一篇优秀的代写范文- Pygmalion Management,供大家参考学习。这篇文章讲述的是在我看来,自我实现的预言是一种具有积极或消极心理暗示并影响人们行为的预测。众所周知,自我实现的预言在小学教学中是有效的。根据J. Sterling Livingston的文章,该理论可以应用于管理。通常,一个人的自我认同会受到其上司的期望的影响,尤其是对新员工而言。在行业或公司中,应适当运用经理对员工的期望,以提高生产率。

Pygmalion Management

Self-fulfilling prophecy, from my perspective of view, is a kind of prediction that has a positive or negative psychological hint and influences the behaviors of people. It is known that self-fulfilling prophecy is effective in teaching of the elementary school. According to J. Sterling Livingston’s article, this theory can be applied to managements. Usually one person’s self-identification is influenced by his or her supervisor’s expectations, especially for new staff. In an industry or a company, manager’s expectations for the employees should be applied properly in order to achieve a better productivity.

The experiment that accomplished in an insurance company in 1961 illustrated the Pygmalion effect in management. Without considering other factors, the result of the experiment demonstrates the importance of the expectation. In the three-year’s experiment, the super-staff group showed great motivation and high productivity because of the high expectation of the assist manager. On the contrary, the last group’s productivity declined as the manager expected. Despite the motivation of the positive expectation, the expectation for the super-staff group is reasonable so that they could achieve the dollar volume goal that set by the manager. The experiment will not succeed if the expectation is far beyond the staff’s capability.

It is worth mentioning that the middle group made significantly increase in its sales volume, too. The increase percentage per year of productivity of the middle group is even higher than the super-staff group. It exemplified the self-fulfilling prophecy. The assist manager believed in herself so that she was not willing to accept the designed average level of her group. She insisted on encouraging and stimulating her agents and convinced them of their potential abilities. Although her agents’ abilities are not as good as the super-staff group, they build self-esteem and have confidence in themselves. Another succeed example in the article, Sweeney’s Miracle, provides an evidence for the managerial and educational self-fulfilling prophecy. When managers believe in their own capability that they can motivate their subordinates successfully, the expectation will have significant power in encouraging people.

I agree that the manager’s expectation will make the deepest influence on the young people who lack of career experience and haven’t built the self-image yet. However, in reality, most of the young people cannot work with the best managers because of the company’s management rule. A vicious cycle is created. The career-starters work with worst sales managers and have low productivity. Next the managers who lack of outstanding skills and knowledge will not consider the potential ability of young people and hold a negative expectation. The young people usually refuse to resolve the problems in the work to protect their self-esteem. Finally, the managers would firmly believe their judgments because of the lower productivity of young people. Most of these young people will resign from work and the new graduates will not choose to do sales.

Moreover, in most cases, there is no effective communications between managers and subordinates. The managers often express their expectation unconsciously and unintentionally. The positive expectation cannot be received directly by subordinates. So they have no idea that the manager has confidence in their abilities. Although most managers denies, their subordinates receive the message of negative expectation. Therefore, it would be a great challenge for a company to develop the organizational management to solve these problems.

As far as I am concerned, it would be helpful if I have a skilled manager when I first entered into a career as a freshman. An outstanding manager with good communication skills would influence my attitude towards my career and my life. Encouragement and stimulation could build my confidence and develop the capability gradually. The productivity will increase consequently. It is doubtless a win-win strategy in both business and personal development.

 

51due留学教育原创版权郑重声明:原创优秀代写范文源自编辑创作,未经官方许可,网站谢绝转载。对于侵权行为,未经同意的情况下,51Due有权追究法律责任。主要业务有essay代写、assignment代写、paper代写、作业代写服务。   51due为留学生提供最好的作业代写服务,亲们可以进入主页了解和获取更多代写范文提供作业代写服务,详情可以咨询我们的客服QQ:800020041。 


Pygmalion Management

Publié le 14/07/2020, par rayrayray,

下面51due教员组为大家整理一篇优秀的代写范文- Pygmalion Management,供大家参考学习。这篇文章讲述的是在我看来,自我实现的预言是一种具有积极或消极心理暗示并影响人们行为的预测。众所周知,自我实现的预言在小学教学中是有效的。根据J. Sterling Livingston的文章,该理论可以应用于管理。通常,一个人的自我认同会受到其上司的期望的影响,尤其是对新员工而言。在行业或公司中,应适当运用经理对员工的期望,以提高生产率。

Pygmalion Management

Self-fulfilling prophecy, from my perspective of view, is a kind of prediction that has a positive or negative psychological hint and influences the behaviors of people. It is known that self-fulfilling prophecy is effective in teaching of the elementary school. According to J. Sterling Livingston’s article, this theory can be applied to managements. Usually one person’s self-identification is influenced by his or her supervisor’s expectations, especially for new staff. In an industry or a company, manager’s expectations for the employees should be applied properly in order to achieve a better productivity.

The experiment that accomplished in an insurance company in 1961 illustrated the Pygmalion effect in management. Without considering other factors, the result of the experiment demonstrates the importance of the expectation. In the three-year’s experiment, the super-staff group showed great motivation and high productivity because of the high expectation of the assist manager. On the contrary, the last group’s productivity declined as the manager expected. Despite the motivation of the positive expectation, the expectation for the super-staff group is reasonable so that they could achieve the dollar volume goal that set by the manager. The experiment will not succeed if the expectation is far beyond the staff’s capability.

It is worth mentioning that the middle group made significantly increase in its sales volume, too. The increase percentage per year of productivity of the middle group is even higher than the super-staff group. It exemplified the self-fulfilling prophecy. The assist manager believed in herself so that she was not willing to accept the designed average level of her group. She insisted on encouraging and stimulating her agents and convinced them of their potential abilities. Although her agents’ abilities are not as good as the super-staff group, they build self-esteem and have confidence in themselves. Another succeed example in the article, Sweeney’s Miracle, provides an evidence for the managerial and educational self-fulfilling prophecy. When managers believe in their own capability that they can motivate their subordinates successfully, the expectation will have significant power in encouraging people.

I agree that the manager’s expectation will make the deepest influence on the young people who lack of career experience and haven’t built the self-image yet. However, in reality, most of the young people cannot work with the best managers because of the company’s management rule. A vicious cycle is created. The career-starters work with worst sales managers and have low productivity. Next the managers who lack of outstanding skills and knowledge will not consider the potential ability of young people and hold a negative expectation. The young people usually refuse to resolve the problems in the work to protect their self-esteem. Finally, the managers would firmly believe their judgments because of the lower productivity of young people. Most of these young people will resign from work and the new graduates will not choose to do sales.

Moreover, in most cases, there is no effective communications between managers and subordinates. The managers often express their expectation unconsciously and unintentionally. The positive expectation cannot be received directly by subordinates. So they have no idea that the manager has confidence in their abilities. Although most managers denies, their subordinates receive the message of negative expectation. Therefore, it would be a great challenge for a company to develop the organizational management to solve these problems.

As far as I am concerned, it would be helpful if I have a skilled manager when I first entered into a career as a freshman. An outstanding manager with good communication skills would influence my attitude towards my career and my life. Encouragement and stimulation could build my confidence and develop the capability gradually. The productivity will increase consequently. It is doubtless a win-win strategy in both business and personal development.

 

51due留学教育原创版权郑重声明:原创优秀代写范文源自编辑创作,未经官方许可,网站谢绝转载。对于侵权行为,未经同意的情况下,51Due有权追究法律责任。主要业务有essay代写、assignment代写、paper代写、作业代写服务。   51due为留学生提供最好的作业代写服务,亲们可以进入主页了解和获取更多代写范文提供作业代写服务,详情可以咨询我们的客服QQ:800020041。 


Some checks on Pascal's bets

Publié le 14/07/2020, par rayrayray,

下面51due教员组为大家整理一篇优秀的代写范文- Some checks on Pascal's bets,供大家参考学习。这篇文章讲述的是如果您选择相信上帝,您几乎不会放松任何事情,但会奖励可能来自上帝的幸福,但如果您不这样做,则可能会遭受未知的惩罚。因此,为了最大的利益,我们最好相信上帝。以上是帕斯卡下注的常见说服力。在众多关于上帝存在的理由中,帕斯卡(Pascal)基于实践推理的方法提出了这一论点,该方法带有审慎而完整的表述和计算方法。通过绘制4 * 4图表,写下每个可数收益,然后计算每个收益,我们可以得到结果。

Some checks on Pascal's bets

If you choose to believe in God, you barely loose nothing but would reward the likely bliss from God, but if you don’t, you may have to suffer from the unknown punishment. Therefore, on account for our best benefit, we’d better believe in God. Above is a frequent persuasion of Pascal’s wager.  Among numerous justifications of God’s existence, Pascal developed this argument based on the method of practical reasoning, which comes with a prudent and complete formulation and calculation. By drawing a 4*4 diagram, writing down every countable benefits and then calculating each, we could get an outcome. When we seek for justification for choices and actions, theoretical rationality gives place to practical rationality. With the help of matrix, the actual benefit of whether believe in God are calculated.

 

Is it true? Pascal’s wager seems offer a brief and reasonable way to justify God’s existence. In my opinion, Pascal’s wager might be convinced for religious preaching. But when regarding it as a serious philosophical argument, Pascal’s wager isn’t likely to be persuasive.

 

Here are two implicit preconditions of Pascal’s wager. First, God is referred to GCB, or Great Conceivable Being, which means God is personal and sentient. And that’s sufficient to explain why GCB would reward back if people choose to believe .And in the text God’s characteristics are particularly mentioned, “…these tradition seem to agree that their God is the greatest conceivable and is perfect in every way. I am hoping my remarks about the GCB will apply to a wide variety of religious tradition.(P31) A personal God is much different from a creator who design the world. And the question whether god is personal and sentient also play a key argument point among the field of God’s existence. That’s why I pay special attention to it. Second , to justify the hypothesis of God’s existence, Pascal adopted the method of practical reasoning, which indicates this hypothesis is more about action and choice than cognition and thoughts. And it might be necessary to raise such question “does action play a more important role in belief that thoughts?”“is it appropriate to calculate?”

 

First I would like to examine the question of God’s existence is appropriate for calculating. To examine it, we have to acknowledge the implication mentioned above , the question about God’s existence is more about choice than cognition. Using a matrix may reach accuracy as much as possible, but it also contain fallacy and limitation. Whether the situation can be described quantitatively and calculated? Whether the question is affected by fallacies led by human’s mentality? And there also exist Calculator’s fallacy.

To finish the matrix , we rely on our knowledge and we predict the probability of the relative state of the world. However,  for we lack the experience of God, our knowledge tend to be more subjective and less reliable. In the 2x2 diagram, the assumed rate of god’s existence is 1%, and its opposition is 99%. 1% and 99% seem to be rates with huge difference, but in actual mathematical measurement, it can be seen as tiny difference. For same reason, eternal reward is supposed as 10000 and wasted piety is supposed as 100, whose difference in quantity is obvious, but we can also increase or reduce the difference. Outcome will be completely different. Therefore, as largely we could change numbers, the outcome turn out to be unrepresentative.

 

If someone turn to believe in God under Pascal’s wager, he is more a gambler than a follower and I think I could reckon most followers must hold the wish that they would be the luckiest ones who will be rewarded by god. Therefore, it’s obvious, Pascal’s wager is not accurate?

 

After the whole analysis, Pascal’s wager is more likely to be self-contradictory.

 

 

Then I would analyze objections against Pascal’s wager. In the text, the author didn’t ignore a group who declare “ If I’m not a theist because I haven’t found enough evidence to believe in a GCB, and I die and go to hell for this, but at least I’ll have my self-respect with me. “(P47) It seems that compared with those people, the persons who believe in God for Pascal’s wager are deceptive and ironic and they might cannot form beliefs at will. Pascal’s response to this question is funny. If someone go to church regularly and surrounding himself with believers, and gradually, he might be influenced by such strong religious atmosphere and change himself into a truly sincere follower of God. However, is it a right way for someone to build his or her belief? I think this explanation drove Pascal’s wager to a kind of preach technique instead of a serious philosophy argument, and it exactly implies the process of growing belief of god doesn’t follow a rational order.

 

Another objection mentioned in the text is  “If I become a theist on self-interested grounds such as those pascal proposes, should a GCB really want to reward me ?(P48) Pascal answered that the belief-inducement process would make people forget their self-interest. You may started with self-interested attempt but would finally end up in commitment.(If not,  you haven’t believed in God). It’s more reasonable than the answer for the first question, but it’s easy to be disproved.

 

Finally let’s clarify the difference between , god exists and belief in god exist. At the opening of this argument, author took pascal’s name explain that We are not in position to show that theism is either theoretically rational or theoretically irrational(P45) Whether believing in God’s existence equals to that God exist. It’s not simply a linguistic question but a philosophy question. By introducing the concept ,thing-in-itself, People can only meet phenomena but can’t discover thing itself. Under such guidance, as the phenomena we meet certainly mix subjective factors, even the expression “God exist” is still a kind of phenomenon caused by people. From this perspective, we may equal these expressions. But in the text, this part haven’t being particularly explained, and regardless of its epistemology basis, I couldn’t comprehend Pascal’s wager. And the essential difference between definitions of theoretically rational and practical rational yet haven’t been discussed.

 

To conclude, Pascal’s wager is more about a kind of tricky technique than a precise philosophical argument. Actually ,in the really world, Pascal’s wager is widely apply to gambling. The justification of Pascal’s wager doesn’t follow a prudent tradition, except some obvious contradictions, which I have mentioned at the 3ed paragraph, Pascal’s wager lack basic reasoning about origins in philosophy.

To examine Pascal’s wager, I have discussed whether the way to justify Pascal’s wager workable, the objection and go back to the original question, whether GCB exist? It still remains an infinite mystery for human beings. And the question of GCB’s existence is so much interacted with some other basic philosophical questions, such as how do we think about the world? Whether the world can be known by people or not. And every argument which tend to answer this question should step by step answer all those question and build a complete frame, Pascal’s wager isn’t  an exception.

51due留学教育原创版权郑重声明:原创优秀代写范文源自编辑创作,未经官方许可,网站谢绝转载。对于侵权行为,未经同意的情况下,51Due有权追究法律责任。主要业务有essay代写、assignment代写、paper代写、作业代写服务。         51due为留学生提供最好的作业代写服务,亲们可以进入主页了解和获取更多代写范文提供作业代写服务,详情可以咨询我们的客服QQ:800020041。 


Transsexualism has the same essence as racism

Publié le 14/07/2020, par rayrayray,

下面51due教员组为大家整理一篇优秀的代写范文- Transsexualism has the same essence as racism,供大家参考学习。这篇文章讲述的是尽管跨性别仍然是一个有争议的问题,但随着我们对接受变性手术者的更高的公众容忍度,变性手术在世界范围内得到了认可。这群人通常对其他性别怀有深切的渴望,不愿意遵循他们原来性别的刻板印象。他们以一种使自己满意的方式对自己的身体进行了巨大的改变。如今,有关跨性别人士的新闻更有可能在公众面前展示。这意味着从道德上讲,这种有争议的问题更容易接受。

Transsexualism has the same essence as racism

Even though transgender remains to be a controversial issue, transsexual surgery is gaining recognition around the world, as we see higher public tolerance for those who receive transsexual surgery. This group of people usually hold deep desire for the other sex and are unwilling to follow the stereotyped path of their original sex. They make drastic changes to their bodies in a way to satisfy themselves. In these days, pieces of news about transgender people are more likely to showcase before the general public. This means morally such controversial issue is being more acceptable. Transracialism refers to the matter that a person voluntarily goes through operations to change his appearance so that he could be seen as a new person from another race, as the case with Micheal Jackson who whitened his color and adjusted his bones. In essence, both transsexualism and transracialism entail the idea of changing identity of an individual and they need to be equally accepted. This essay is to argue for this opinion with references to two passages.

As Overall mentioned (p.183), transsexualism is usually generated by the desire to change one’ s physical identity. A transsexual surgery usually cuts a part of or even an entire genital and this really entails enormous courage in that the transgender tends to come up against public questioning, misunderstanding and even animosity. As we all know, people are almost always living in a context where they can receive a mixed set of feedback and feelings. Transgenders are prone to suffering from negative feedback since it fails to consist with the mainstream values. In this sense, what on earth prompts a man to cut his genital so as to turn a women even under such huge pressure from the outside ? It is because his inner desire to transfer his gender has defeated his fright toward opposition from his family or friends. In other words, he is too passionate about transsexualism to take other factors into account. Such fervor actually arises from his desire to make changes to his identity in a way of self-recreation or self-reconstruction.

However, it is worth mentioning that changing color or other religious or racial features is also an approach to self-recreation or self-reconstruction. In this connection, transracial surgery plays an equivalent role as transsexual operation does. Both of them are seemingly extreme ways one adopts to alter his original features and set himself on the path toward his ideal identity. It seems to be some sort of human right to do whatever to his or her body even some temporary or permanent hurts, if he or she feels pleased (Overall, p. 184). Just imagine, if a man is desired to become a woman even at the cost of pain, money and criticism, he is most likely to be emboldened to whiten his color, have surgery on his chins or cheekbones or gain other racial features. In essence, both transsexualism and transracialism make one receive surgeries on physical natures, and those surgeries come rare to majority people. As such, if transgenders can be widely-recognized one day, then those who have gone through surgeries to alter their racial features would be accepted by the general public as well.

However, there still exist a wave of people who are opposed to the commonality between transracialism and transsexualism and exaggerate their dissimilarity to preach against Overall’ s argument. In this connection, Overall lists those opposing arguments as follows and rejects them in details.

To begin with, some rejecters believe that racial features are inherent and unchangeable natures that people can’t shrug off even they take physical surgeries (Overall, p. 185). In other words, one would never manage to transform his or her inner racial natures for he or she grows up with such natures and can’t deny the existence and influence they cause. Even the transracial change their faces, colors or other physical characteristics, they’ re unlikely to root out the inherent racial characteristics that have been long tucked away in their mind. However, such opposing argument fails to take a comprehensive view toward transsexualism. Even a man abandons his genital and decides to turn a woman, his recognition about sexuality can’t be immediately eliminated either. In this sense, if transsexualism can be accepted morally, then transracialism would be acceptable as well. On the other hand, transsexual surgery is a process of reconstructing one’ s sexual appearance as a certain gender. And what the transgenders have gone through is the changes in physical characteristics, no matter what recognition they themselves hold to inner sexual identity. In this connection, it is safe to say transracial surgery is accordingly a process of reshaping one’ s race by eliminating the original racial features and gaining new ones. And what racial identity the transracial harbor in heart shall not be considered by the surgeons. Therefore, if it is acceptable for a man to become a woman, then it is also possible for a person to transform his color from black into white.

On top of that, some rejecters with extreme loyalty values tend to blame the transracial for their betrayal to original race. They believe that one in a certain race needs to be loyal to his racial identity. From my perspective, such argument, however, is no more than a view of extreme racialists and can’t hold water. This is because not everyone is tasked with being loyal to his ethnic or racial identity. Such opposition is partial and stubborn and produced by some racialists who attempt to exert the idea of extreme racialism on other people. Those who desire to receive transracial surgery are inclined to become a member of another race because they are eager to be assimilated into the race and move away from the original ethnic group. This argument, actually, lets them down and puts a label of “disloyalty” on them. It is unfair. The rejection is produced from a partial stance that racialists stick to. Those racialists are making an endeavor to infringe on freedom of the transracial. Their opposition, in essence, runs poles apart from morality for they overlook the transracial’ s will. In this sense, it can be safely inferred that neither transsexualism nor transracialism touches upon the issue of loyalty duty. Morally, if transsexualism can be acceptable, then transracialism can be accepted too since it shouldn’t be labeled as racial disloyalty that can’t apply to anyone.

Apart from that, some rejecters regard transracial surgery as a means of self-harm (Overall, p. 190). They believe such surgery would cause permanent hurts to the transracial. It is fair to say those rejecters have a warm heart and are unwilling to see any tragedy occurs to the transracial. It can’t be denied that transracial surgery indeed causes harm to physical health and dictates medical care even for a lifelong time. But it can’t be overlooked that even transsexual surgery comes at the cost of health. Some ladyboys and transgenders have to take medicines for a whole life, which definitely contribute to damage to their physical health. In this sense, if transsexual surgery can be accepted, then transracial surgery would be acceptable to the public as well, as the public have shown tolerance for such practice that, to some degree, brings damage to the body.

Heyes brings the term of “Gender Identity Disorder (GID)” in his argument when he discusses the issue of transgender (p. 277). He argues that there is no visible evidence that indicates transsexualism is actually linked with GID. This also indicates transsexualism is not some sort of illness or disorder. He places emphasis on the fact that transsexualism is a means of self-expression, which is consistent with Overall’ s view in this regard. We may safely conclude that in Heyes’ s opinion, transgenders have transsexual surgeries in order to express their eagerness about self-presentation and interaction, not because they fail to look at their identity with a correct view. The ideas of transracialism and transsexualism share the common origin, the desire for self-recreation. This is because the transsexual and transracial are unwilling to live with their original identities.

Transsexualism and transracialism is equally acceptable since in essence, both of them are triggered by desire to reshape or reconstruct one’ s original identity. What apparently sets them apart is where the desire comes from. If such idea of self-reconstruction comes from sexuality, then a transgender is likely to come along. Likewise, if such eagerness arises from race, then the one would choose to join another race group. As such, transsexualism and transracialism essentially is the same. Both of the two are expression of one’ s deep desire to change his identity. They have nothing to do mental disorder or illness. People have the right to change or adjust physical features and become what they want to be. Transgenders change their genitals or other sexual organs while the transracial change their colors or bones. What they are doing is just to use the right of controlling and managing their own bodies.    

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